The key to the success of the design of steel structure design is technical conception and performance. In the deepening of the design of the scheme, it is necessary to closely cooperate with structural engineers, equipment engineers and even mechanical engineers. At this time, the technical performance is a natural thing. Whether it is the spatial form, the formal mass or the structural node is very important to its architectural design and performance, the following will explain this from several aspects.
(A) Technical performance of steel structure design
The concept of architectural image is a creative process of conceptual image. It is one of the difficulties in architectural creation and one of the core issues in architectural design. Recalling the development of the relationship between architecture and science and technology since the industrial revolution, it can clearly reveal the hysteresis of the response of architecture to technological change, which reflects the deep position of architecture in social culture and the architecture and human lifestyle. close relationship. In addition, the modern and innovative information revolution is widely infiltrating and involved in every field of social activities, making modern scientific thinking into architectural design, and the planning, construction and landscape design methods of new projects have undergone tremendous changes. The purpose of architectural design has also changed from the simple pursuit of beauty to the rational solution to the problem, which fundamentally changed people's previous understanding and design of architecture, and ultimately influenced the traditional architectural concept that humans have formed for thousands of years, such as high. The sectarian architecture is its main representative. It excels in craftsmanship with exquisite nodes and fine processing, and designs and “manufactures” buildings with a higher level of craftsmanship.
(B) Steel structure architectural design has higher requirements
The higher the complexity and refinement requirements of steel structure design, the higher the requirements for detail design. Because the detail design determines whether a place is ultimately confirmed and its quality. In modern steel structures, various metal structural members, which are connected to the joints of metal rods, are often exposed, giving the building a strong sense of technology, such as the Pompidou Centre for the Arts and Culture in Paris, built in 1977. Its steel columns, steel beams, trusses and other structural components are exposed, which not only reflects the technical beauty, but also reflects the wisdom and ability of people. Therefore, it is very important to maintain high design requirements for the quality of steel structures, and special attention should be paid to steel structures.
(C) Architectural planning is also a factor in the design and performance of steel structures
Because the steel structure design has the general attributes of architectural design, the architect is not designing as he wants, and the owner's design task book is important for the architect's plane and design concept. Customers want designers to have better performance and hope that designers and market experts can participate in decision making more efficiently during the final product determination process. At this stage, the construction project emphasizes the overall design and emphasizes the coordination between professional designers, market experts and developers. The design process includes continuous exchange and integration of information and knowledge. In addition, the specialization of steel structure not only provides rich design knowledge, but also effectively integrates design resources and market experts to jointly be responsible for the construction, so that the design and the owner's business intentions can be effectively combined to make the project profitable and reduce risks.
Architectural features of modern steel structures
(1) High degree of pre-engineering, lower construction costs, and shorter construction period
The harmonized standard of steel structure building modulus realizes the large-scale production of industrialization of buildings, improves the pre-engineering of buildings, and makes the building components of different materials, different shapes and different manufacturing methods have certain versatility and interchangeability. At the same time, the pre-engineering of steel structure makes the integration of material processing and installation, which greatly reduces the construction cost; and accelerates the construction speed, which can shorten the construction period by more than 40%, thus accelerating the capital turnover rate of real estate developers and enabling the building to Put it into use earlier.
(2) Steel structure can meet the requirements of super height and super span
The steel is evenly organized, close to the isotropic homogeneous body, with high strength and high modulus of elasticity. The ratio of density to strength is much smaller than that of masonry, concrete, and wood. Under the same force, the steel structure has a small weight, so that it can be made into a structure with a large span and a high height, and a flexible structural body. Humans now have the ability to build super-high domes with a span of more than 1,000 meters and super-tall buildings with a height of more than 1,000 meters and up to 4,000 meters. And the combination of steel cable and membrane structure to form a cable-membrane structure system can better meet the requirements of building span, making this type of building a landmark building. For example, the roof of Tokyo Korakuen baseball stadium in Tokyo is composed of steel cable and air bearing membrane. Membrane structure, covering an area of 28,000 square meters, the British government's landmark Millennium London dome for the 21st century - large-scale comprehensive exhibition building is also a cable-membrane structure system with a dome diameter of 320m.
(3) Integration of design and function of architecture and structure to make the building more functional
In steel structures, the structure becomes an important factor in the image formation. The shape, components and nodes of the structure largely lead to and restrict the image of the building. The design and function of the building and structure can only be integrated, so that the building can be more functionalized for the subsequent design steps to create a steel structure that integrates technology and art. There are many programs in the bidding plan for the National Stadium of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games that reflect this feature of steel structures. For example, the Tsinghua University Architectural Design Institute designed a split-and-close scheme. Two semi-circular glass tops were placed in the center of the stadium's large roof. At the same time, the large roofs were opened and closed in relative rotation and parallel sliding. The appearance of the scheme is the structure of the building, the image is perfect and pure, and the function and structure are perfectly unified. There is also a folding scheme designed by the Japanese-style architects. The roof is supported by a cantilever steel frame structure and can be completed in 30 minutes. The opening and closing action ensures that the year-round competitions and activities are not affected by the weather.
(4) Raw materials can be recycled, contributing to environmental protection and sustainable development
The development of steel structures is of great significance to China, where resources and energy are in short supply, because China is the world's largest brick and concrete construction and concrete construction country. Steel is a high-strength, high-performance material with high recycling value and valuable trim, without the need for mold construction. At present, the internationally attractive new residential products have been introduced into China, and their environmental protection and energy saving features are mainly reflected in two aspects:
(a) This type of house adopts a fully enclosed thermal insulation and moisture-proof system with low temperature variation and low heat loss. Whether it is winter or summer, it has a comfortable living environment. When the outdoor temperature is 0 degrees Celsius, the indoor temperature can still be maintained above 17 degrees Celsius; when the outdoor temperature reaches 30 degrees Celsius, the indoor temperature is only about 21 degrees Celsius.
(b) Compared with brick-concrete structure houses, it can save more than 60% energy. In winter and summer, air-conditioning equipment can save more than 30% of electricity consumption, and the waste utilization of structure is 100%. Compared with the brick-concrete structure, under the same floor height, The steel structure maintains a small wall area, saves energy required for air conditioning, and reduces maintenance costs.